Why is the watchmaking core technology in the industrial age?

Time “What is it? When we say” one inch of the golden one inch gold “, what are we talking about?” How to stay “becomes a virtue of the sky, the invention of modern times, originally only Newton and Leibnitza The by-products of the famous famous argument of the calculus have been profoundly changed. The book “Leibnitz, Newton and Invention Time”, which is newly introduced by the Social Science Document Press, and integrates the double biography of the two scholars into the time. In the essence of this issue, “Read” invites the book translator exclusive writer, and our readers, recall the invention of modern times. – Editor

Slow, time is Chunhua Qiushi, fighting star shift

Referring to “Time”, our minds sometimes emerge in a round of rising red days, a pentium river, a few rotating pointers, accompanied by 嘀嗒 声声. But think carefully, the above image is contradictory – some are linear, some are cycling. Therefore, the time is at least two negotiations, which are from the natural observation.

Looking up at the stars, the time has periodic. The interaction between the earth, the sun and the moon produces a phenomenon of day and night, the four seasons and the moon, and they are accompanied by the evolution of creatures in billions of years, in the latter injection of natural beats. Toothched the world, time has a hate. The phenomenon of being old and sick, and it is difficult to cover water reflect some kind of order, which seems to have changed in a specific direction. So, in the process of “Cognitive Revolution” said by “Human Simple History”, “Japanese” “Yue” “Year”, and “” Successful “” Mortien and evening “or” in the past, now In the future, “These perceptions enter the consciousness level from the physiological level, which constitutes the most primitive and pure time concept of humanity.


Since entering the agricultural society, in order to meet the needs of farming, military and ritual activities, people try to uncheck different time units. However, the movement of the celestial body is not uniform, and its operating cycle is too monotonous. Therefore, the time system of human beings is said to be the imitation of natural rhythm. It is better to say that mathematics-based self-improvement, such as inserting the weeks between months and day, using twelve binders united year and month, day, and six Ten refinement creates a small time unit, a small number of seconds, seconds.

When the ancients began to think about the essence of “time”, it has been packaged by the math properties of the artificial system. Ancient Greek philosophers emphasize the periodicity of the time. The Pythaglas School believes that time is stellar heave, Plato regards time as the eternal rotation of the heave, Aristotle believes that “time is a measure of exercise.” Judaism and later Christianity is based on the historical view of creation to the end of the day, and the endless linear time is initiated.

In the late Middle Ages, European society gradually formed linear-oriented, and the time concept was supplemented by cycles. People draw a tick on the southern wall, making sun clocks (Japanese); hangs the clock on the tower, used to notify prayers, conferences and markets; in order to calculate more accurate time, you can use incinement, idling ( Water clock) or hourglass (sand bell); when the night is quiet, there is also a night to fight.

According to historical records, the Northern Song Dynasty slaughtered Su Sui hosted the earliest astronomical clock “Water Machine Meeting” in the world, which has used an escapement. Until more than three hundred years later, Europe has an escapement, a mechanism clock with gravity. Its advantage is that it can continue to operate without relying on external force, but the daily error is as high as more than ten minutes.

In 1583, Galileo found the lyrics of the pendulum – the square of the cycle of the wave and the cycle of the pendulum. With this principle, Huygens made a pendulum in 1657 and invented the bang wheel wire in 1675. The former has reduced the error of the mechanism clock to less than one minute, and the latter paved the road for the birth of the portable clock. As the timing becomes accurate, the time unit in life is accurate, then to second; because the type and specifications of the timing tool are more flexible, the time will go into thousands of households, become like shadow. In this way, the scene of a change in the modern great character – Newton and Leibnitz is open.

“Water Games” (data map)

There is no watch, not enough to talk about “time is money”

In the late 17th century, the exploration of the mystery of the world is still limited to a small circle composed of most of the masters who have a public office or faculty. During decades, this group established the Academy and Tianminbai in London, Paris and Berlin, issued the first scientific journal, started the earliest peer review activities, Ji – promoted the birth of modern natural sciences.

In this process, the watch played a role that cannot be ignored.

First, the watch promotes science to become an independent concept system. With the birth of the new clock, time is completely independent of natural phenomena, it is an important physical parameter “T” that can be accurately measured, which has strengthened the objectivity of the world and its mathematical essential belief. Newton named his representative as “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”. “If these timers are not pre-invented, Newton created universal movement and gravitational theory at the end of the 17th century is unimaginable.”

Second, the watch provides the core equipment of the scientific experiment. The accuracy of the new clock is greatly improved, making more complex physical experiments. The clock is all the nasal ancestors of the precision machine. Its manufacturing technology and experience apply to many scientific instruments. It is the latter to determine the direction of future scientific research.

Third, the watch has established a new partnership between academic, handicrafts and governments. The watchmaker represented by Tang Pi En is a natural senior technician. They help Huygens, Hook, Leibniz, etc., to turn some of the idea – in today’s words, is the transformation of scientific research results. In order to solve the “long-scale problem”, the British government set up a special committee and the heavy golden clockwork – this is one of the earliest scientific and technological policies. In these two cases, we can see the prototypes of the modern innovation system participating in various departments.

It is not difficult to understand that the watch is a key to the modern scientific revolution. But it is also important, the watch time provides powerful organizational skills, changing the relationship between people and time, and ultimately giving birth to an orderly, efficient, unified modern society.

“From our time culture, the 17th century can be described as a new standard.” The appearance of pocket watch and clocks not only changed daily life, but also impacted the original social structure, breaking the monopoly of the monopoly of the monopoly of the monarch of the monolith. With the popularity of private watches, time becomes public goods, it has promoted the awareness of individual consciousness.

The clock allows the time to be carried. In the new type of time as the reference matter, all social activities, whether economic, religion, military or transportation, whether the court ceremony is still a private dating, suddenly become expected, planned, coordinated, make millions of people It is also possible to operate as a watch machine. In the Clary factory, the mathematical time begins to play organizers and controls, making it a prerequisite for machine production. Therefore, Lewis Mangford has summarized in the 20th century: “The core technology of today’s industrial age is a clock, not a steam engine.”

The new time will be in an unprecedented important position – efficiency (that is, speed) itself is defined by the measurement time. Time is like shaped, the efficiency is everywhere; the time is more accurate, and the efficiency is more precious. When efficient is a decisive factor and the basic parameters of the technical device, the time is also given value – Marx pointed out that the value of commodity value is determined to work. “Time is money” concept, becoming the motto of capitalism, and has spread to all corners of the world market.

Built in Prague, Prague / CFP in 1410

The continuous expansion market requires a unified time. As a result, the local time is replaced by the official standard time, first is the city, then the country, the world is the world – after the iron and telegraphs: In 1847, the UK’s main railway company decided to unify the train timetable, replacing the place in Greening Time Time; 1880 and 1884, Greenwich time was determined by the British government and the international community as national standard time and world standard time. The ancients “Tianya at this time”, the atomic clock and Internet fruit of the Globalization era were really doing this.

However, when the social time of mathematics is unified, it also cuts off the links between people and nature. Today, when urban residents say time, it is often not a sunrise, Chunhua Qiushi, the fighting star shifted this wonderful scene, but a cold tick or several dry numbers.

We may have learned for the virtue of the sky. However, whenever we do an emergency task, it may be able to experience the command of personal life, so that the whole society is working around. It replaces the traditional authority, but has established his tyranny: there is no watch, personal can’t live, and the society is immediately paralyzed. Human tries to become a slave servant for time by returning, homing, and time difference and daylight saving time.

“One inch light is one inch gold”. Despite the increasing efficiency, the division of labor is getting thinner, but time is always a scarce resource. Even people are competing, and they have to compete with time, even to sacrifice sleep. In the net of the time, “people are full of remorse for the past, full of fear in the future, trying to desperately grabbing the present,” even need deliberate time. Just in this busy, bustling, the world is falling into a collective anxiety, while complaining, “I have done”, I have been desperately missing: “From the day, the day is slow, the car, horse, email slow……”

Today, although the timing function of the watch is gradually replaced by mobile phones, our time experience is still deeply influenced. Due to the victory of enlightenment and evolution, we may describe the time to develop a spiral development – both advancement and cycling characteristics. However, the time is the same as the sun, the water, and the bell, just the real time. Want to solve the time realization problems mentioned in this article, we must chase the source, look for the time itself of the substance, exercise and observer. 300 years ago, in the process of the time revolution, Newton and Leibniz have launched a profound argument, writing a critical chapter in the history of philosophy and history.


What is the time?

A debate from Newton to Einstein


The grievances between Newton and Leibnitz have long been talking about old. Scholars in the British and European scholars once invented the calculus to two camps, for details. About time arguments are the by-products of this dispute. In particular, the British King Taizi Raroline tried to mediate the unexpected harvest of disputes, and it was not between the two protagonists, but by Leibnitz and Newton. Agent Samuel Clark expanded.

Newton inherits the Experience tradition of Anglo-Saxon. In his view, it is the only way to get a real method to describe the phenomenon. In order to build a classic mechanics system, Newton will move uniform and linear mathematical time (similar to a plurality of axes) along the teacher’s thinking, linear mathematics time (similar to a plurality of axes) as a premise of calculating object motion, speed and acceleration. At the beginning of “principle”, Newton distinguishes relative, apparent, usually time and absolute, true, mathematical time. “Absolute Time” and “absolute space” have the realities that are not affected by anything, “which” together constitutes a container that occurs all events. ” He called the time to “God’s perception” and tried to use the bucket experiment to prove the existence of “absolute space” to indirectly infer “absolute time”.

Instead, Leibniz is a representative of continentalism, and believes that if time and space is absolute and eternal, it violates the principle of sufficient reason, and it has damaged the dignity of God. Leibniz tries to use idealism to transcend mechanical theory, refuse to associate the time with the specific substance. He inherited and developed Augustine, Beckle and Descartes, think that time and space is only the imagination of people from sports trajectory, is “related to foreign objects and can be perceived by our perception. “. “Absolute Space” or “absolute time” cannot be observed and proved that there is only the relationship between the object and its changes, such as “first” “” after “and” simultaneous “. He summarizes: “The space is the order of the total existence, and the time is the order of non-common existence.”

Each of the two sides wrote five letters. You come to me, and the mutual set will attack each other. Soon, Leibniz rested in the poor, and the communication was abrupt, and this debate did not have any conclusions. However, as the classic mechanics is being truthmed in two centuries, the absolute space and absolute time have universally acceptable absolute time. On the contrary, Leibniz’s time-space theory is unable to quantify, and there is no system, which is soon forgotten.

Until the end of the 19th century, human beings were fully excellent in the dimensions, philosophy and scientific communities re-discover the value of relationalism. Bergsen refused time physical and spatialization, canceled the past, now and the future fence, unifying the time to stretch. In the scientific field, Erste Mach takes the lead in criticizing the bucket test and denies the presence of absolute motion relative to absolute space. Then, Einstein proposes a narrow relativity based on the principle of radius and space, and the time and space are unified as “four-dimensional time and space”, the gravity field. In 1915, he further pointed out in general relativity, and the simultaneousness of exercise is relatively, and each observers can measure special “original”. There is no absolute reference system, “” space and time are just the way we think. ” Another cornerstone of modern physics – quantum mechanics believes that time and space are discontinuous at the Plank scale, and even in the basic theory.

Although the world is still unable to get rid of an absolute time in daily life, more and more evidence suggests that relationalism is closer to the essence of time. Of course, Libnetz has recognized the limitations of absolute time and space, and his arguments raised by relationsism are still far from today’s understanding. Representatives of the theory of “circle quantum gravity”, Italy physicist Carlo Roveley summarizes the book in “time order”, time does not have unity, directionality, independence and determinism. Depending on the second law of thermodynamics, it may be the trajectory of entropy increase, but may be a perceived life as a special state of life on memory and expected processes. However, Roveley’s thinking is still guess. As long as the theory of the big uniform has not yet been established, the ultimate picture of the Physiological World has not started, and the discussion of time will not end – may never end.

Prior to this, we can at least review their own time experience, time tools and time concepts, resolve natural time, math time and time itself, think about how to better plan life, let yourself become the owner of time.So, in the net of the time of the time, we can be less and confused, more confident and strong.


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