The modern Chinese history broke out in 1840, and the Kuomintang regime of the Nanjing Kuomintang died in 1949. After the late Qing Dynasty, the period of the temporary government of the Republic of China, the period of the Beiyang warlord, and the period of the National Government. The history of disintegration.
Modern Chinese History
In the middle of the 19th century, Western powers such as Britain and France launched a war that invaded China. China’s sovereign independence and territorial integrity were continuously destroyed, and the conflict between Western powers and the Chinese nation intensified. After the 1970s, the aggressive aggression against China has intensified, and the crisis of the Chinese nation has become increasingly heavy.
Before the Opium War, China was still an independent feudal country. However, due to the decline of the feudal landlord power of the Qing Dynasty, the arrogance of self -esteem, and self -proclaimed, he did not realize that he had gradually lag behind. So the feudal system is in danger. As Lin Zexu’s Humen sold smoke, Britain took the opportunity to invade China, but it was essentially to open the Chinese market and sell opium. In 1842, the British forced the Qing government to sign the “Nanjing Treaty” in China and China. After the Opium War, Western capitalist powers exported goods and capital to China through inequality treaties, and gradually impacted the feudal economy in China.
In 1840, foreign capitalism opened the door of ancient China with a sharp boat. The Opium War, the Sino -French War, the Sino -Japanese Sino -Japanese War, and the Eight -Power Allied Forces invaded China, and a disaster imposed to the Chinese nation. In the past century, almost all capitalist countries in the world have launched a war against China once or even multiple aggression war. There are open invasion, and there are also fighting; there are separate invasion, and some partnerships, forcing China to sign thousands of inequality treaties. Through these unequal treaties, capitalist powers support feudal forces as tools for governing China; eating and whale swallowing Chinese territory; sending troops to control, stealing Chinese military places; dividing the scope of forces; controlling important business ports and establishing concessions; implementing consular judgments and implementing consular jurisdictions and implementation One -sided benefit of the country’s treatment; huge compensation through war; commodity dumping and capital output in China. The colonialism promoted by foreign capitalism, which caused a huge turbulence of Chinese social politics, economy, and culture, and China has gradually become a semi -colonial and semi -feudal society. Since then, the Chinese people have carried out long -term and indomitable struggles to get rid of foreign capitalism and their feudalism.
Since 1840, the crisis of death of the country has been threatened by thousands of years. On the occasion of the Chinese nation, a generation of ethnic elites awakened: Wei Yuan and other “Master Yiyi’s skills to formulate”; Hong Xiuquan’s anti -Qing farmers uprising; Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao’s “strong transformation map”; Sun Yat -sen’s national revolution. It is the critical juncture of their lives and deaths that came forward to oppose foreign aggression, fight for national independence and liberation, fight against enemies, fight bravely, go forward, and work hard, compose the tragic chapter of sang in modern Chinese history.
In 1851, Hong Xiuquan called on farmers to announce an uprising in Jintian and set up the “Taiping Heavenly Kingdom”. In the spring of 1853, the Taiping Army occupied Nanjing, renamed Nanjing as Tianjing, set as the capital, and officially established a farmer’s regime, confronting the Qing Dynasty. In 1856, the Taiping Army destroyed the Jiangnan Camp and lifted the siege of Tianjing. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom reached its heyday in military. In the summer of 1864, Hong Xiuquan died of illness. Soon, Tianjing fell, and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement failed.
In 1856, Britain proposed to revise the “Nanjing Treaty” in China and Britain, but was rejected by the Qing government. Britain provoked the Second Opium War. War has nothing to do with opium, but its essence is the same as the Opium War, so it is called the Second Opium War.
After the Second Opium War was defeated in China, the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign with Russia (June 13), the United States (June 18), Britain (June 26), and France (June 27) in 1858 The “Tianjin Treaty” signed the “Treaty of Tsitelling” with Tsarist Russia.
In 1860, the British and French forces captured Tianjin again, burning and robbery all the way, Emperor Xianfeng fled to Chengde to avoid the summer villa, and let his younger brother Prince Gong Yixin serve as the minister and stay in Beijing. Then the British and French forces ransacked and burned the world -famous Royal Garden Yuanmingyuan in the western suburbs of Beijing, occupying Beijing. The Qing government forced the Qing government to sign the “Beijing Treaty”.
In the 1960s and 1990s, the Westernization Movement was led by Yi Xin. The development of China’s military, civilian, education, etc., China’s bourgeoisie has developed and developed.
From 1883-1885, the Sino -French war signed the “New Treaty of China and France”, marking the opening of the portal of southwestern China.
In 1894, in the Sino -Japanese War of the Sino -Japanese War, China failed. In 1895, the signing of the “Maguan Treaty” greatly deepened the semi -colonization of Chinese society.
In 1900, in order to suppress the Boxer Uprising and safeguarded the interests of the regiment in China, the Imperial State launched the war of invasion of the Eight -Power Allied forces. In 1901, the signing of the “Xin Chou Treaty” marked the formation of the semi -feudal society in China.
The bourgeois democratic revolution led by Sun Yat -sen in 1911, the Revolution of 1911, is the first time in Chinese history that anti -imperial and anti -feudal bourgeois democratic revolution, overthrowing the rule of the Qing Dynasty, ending the monarchy system that lasted more than 2,000 years in China for more than 2,000 years. , Establish a bourgeois democratic Republic. It made the concept of democratic republics deeply rooted in people’s hearts and cracked down on the colonial rule of imperialism.