Organic organic grape planting is really good?
The previous article briefly explained the organic and non -organic grape planting with you. The obvious difference between production. The next few articles will share with you in detail the organic wines, biological wines, and natural wine.
So, today I will talk to you about organic grape planting. Is “organic” only benefit and no harm?
About organic and non -organic arguments have never stopped, and they are not clear between them.
In fact, non -organic growers also use many organic products, and at the same time, many organic certified products are also huge controversy.
What is organic? Is it the same as biological power planting? Many “natural wine” winemakers also pursue organic planting. So many countries, so many organizational regulations and standards, how to choose is the real organic?
Organic grape planting-basic essence
Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides cannot be used. Do not use artificial synthetic fertilizers. Do not use genetically modified products.
In organic planting, synthetic chemical products are prohibited. Because synthetic pesticides are usually systemic or penetrated. Through -nature products enter the plant through the pores of the leaves and distribute them in grapes through their juice. From the perspective of protection, this was the most effective product at the time. But it has penetrated into the inside of the grapes and will appear in wine.
In organic agriculture, you can use chemical products, but you can only use organic certification products and cannot use synthetic products. Therefore, “organic planting is not used for chemicals” is incorrect. There are almost no wine producers “not spray pesticides”.
Organic grape growers can only use “contact classes” products. This means that these products are sprayed on the surface of the grapes and stayed on the leaves or grapes after treatment. Copper and sulfur are two examples of contact products widely used in organic agriculture (both are chemical products). They are the two most important substances and are widely used by organic growers and non -organic growers.
Organic grape planting-prevention work
Farmers growing organic wines use preventive measures as the main weapon to deal with pests. Therefore, he will prevent problems by observation and carefulness, and manages vineyards so that it can resist the attack. For example, an important way is to keep the leaves ventilated so that it can dry quickly after the rain.
Today, people’s research on protecting vines with natural therapy is still underway, and the alternatives of copper and sulfur are still very little. At present, some organic grape growers have already used plants and herbs to decoction and granules, but they have limited effect on the most sharp problems. There are now several so -called plant stimuli, which can trigger the plant’s defense system when they are attacked by disease.
Increasing biodiversity is also important, so that natural enemies of pests will appear. The environment inside and around the vineyard should be more suitable for insects, birds, bats and small animals. If you have room, you plant trees and fences. By restoring the life of vineyards, nature can easier to maintain the balance between pests and natural enemies.
However, even if an organic vineyard is very healthy, it is still a single cultivation, which is an unbalanced agricultural type. Avoid diseases and pests at any time.
Organic grape planting-copper and sulfur use
Grape leaves attacked by frostmium mildewer bacteria
Almost all vineyards in the world have been attacked more or less: frostmo. It is also called Peronospo. This is a fungal disease that was introduced from the United States in 1878 to Europe. This fungus attacks the fine branches, leaves or grapes of the vine.
Frostmuffs invade the vineyards throughout the growth season. In difficult years, you must spray vineyards many times. Every rain, the protection disappears and is washed away. For organic grape growers, the only effective remedy is copper. It can be used in the form of copper sulfate, copper hydroxide, copper chloride or copper oxide. The most famous is the “Bombardo” (Boumie Bordelais), which consists of copper sulfate and lime (calcium hydroxide), but this is one of the ways to use copper. In French vineyards, 40%of the bronze spray came from Bordeaux mixture and 40%came from copper hydroxide.
For many organic growers, spraying copper is a big problem. As we all know, copper is a heavy metal, the higher the concentration, and the soil and water are toxic. For a long time, people have been arguing about what is “high level, high concentration”, and how large the toxicity of copper is. The EU has repeatedly tried to prohibit the use of copper in agriculture. What made all organic wine producers relieved that it had not done so. In fact, disable copper may endanger organic agriculture we know today.
However, planters cannot use copper as they want. Until January 1, 2020, the allowable quantity was 6 kg of copper per hectare. The current limit is 4 kg per hectare.
Traditional and sustainable agricultural growers usually spray copper and sulfur. They often combine it with synthetic products, especially in difficult years. The use of synthetic, penetrating or systematic products greatly reduces the amount of copper they use.
Today, the use of copper may be the most intense debate on organic agriculture, and has done a lot of research.
Oidium is another potential devastating fungal disease. If the weather is warm/hot and humid, it will thrive. It was introduced from the United States 30 years earlier than frost mold. Organic growers and many traditional growers spray sulfur. Sulfur is not as controversial as copper. But this does not mean that it is completely safe. Some small insects suitable for growing in vineyards may be harmed.
Organic grape planting-repeated treatment
Because copper and sulfur are contact products, this means that rainwater will be washed away, and you must spray again after the rain. You may need to repeat treatment every ten days.
Therefore, prevention measures are crucial, such as ensuring that the leaves are kept ventilated to increase the impact of dry wind. When the weather forecast is required, the growers must be able to respond quickly. In addition, the sprayer must be set correctly to prevent the spraying fluid from being wasted or ends in the wrong place.
Organic grape planting-troubles of insects
Different types of insects can cause damage to leaves or grapes. The most troublesome is the “Grape”, which is actually two different moth larvae. Organic growers use so -called “gender confusion” to fight grape worms, not synthetic pesticides. Small capsules containing pheromone are placed in vineyards. Pensory is a substance secreted by female insects to attract male. The male was confused by the “perfume” in the air, and the female could not be found, so no reproduction occurred. Confusion is an effective and harmless method, which has become very popular among sustainable planting and some traditional growers.
FlaveScence Dorée is a severe bacterial disease transmitted from 蚱蜢 (leaf cicada). This disease is considered to be very dangerous for vineyards and introduced from the United States in the United States in the 1950s. For organic growers, they can only use one product. It is based on chrysanthemums extracted from chrysanthemums from Kenya and Australia, so if you infected grapes, you must be forced to spray. Even organic grape growers.
Organic grape planting-fertilizer
The soil of grapes does not need to be very fertile. However, the growers must be aware that the nutritional deficiency may occur. Lack of nitrogen or some minerals. A farmer growing organic wine adds natural fertilizers to his soil. This fertilizer stimulates microorganisms in the soil, such as bacteria, fungi, worms and small insects. They convert organic matter in fertilizer (mineralization) to nutrients that grapes can absorb.
When farmers use traditional synthetic fertilizers, they are mainly nitrogen (n), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Sometimes they are also called NPK fertilizers. The efficiency of nutritional absorption of vines is greatly reduced compared to the use of natural fertilizers.
Organic grape planting-weeds
Organic growers are not allowed to use chemical herbicides, and we have emphasized in previous articles. Instead, an organic grape plantation will allow grass or weeds to grow in vineyards and clearly remove it. This will bring a lot of benefits: it reduces soil erosion, reduce the risk of soil compaction, and promote the large number of microorganisms in the soil to breed with vines for water and nutrition to suppress yield.
You can also use crops, such as clover. This cover crop can inhibit weeds and is easier to control. However, it also has disadvantages, for example, increasing the risk of mold attacks, or may overdose water.
Some soil types, climate, and grape varieties cannot cope with excessive water and nutrition of grass, especially in hot and dry summer. In this case, the more important the appropriate cover crop to choose to compete with the vines.
For planters, the plowing ground is very time -consuming compared to the use of chemical herbicides (such as grass glyphosate). This is especially true when the grass below the vine is pulled out. This is a tricky job to avoid damaging the vines. You must drive a tractor very slowly. It is also more expensive because it needs more labor. It is almost impossible to control weeds on steep hillside. Many growers have no other ways and can only use chemical herbicides to complete this special task. In other words, they cannot be organic.
Organic grape planting-existence value
There are many reasons for wine manufacturers to turn to organic planting. Of course, many producers say they want to take care of their land, maintain its health, and think that organic agriculture is the best way. Many people also say that they use better agricultural production of better wine.
In our conversation with organic grape growers, the most common reason is that they want to protect themselves, family and employees away from dangerous pesticides. Because the people who spray medicine are always the most exposed. Rather than those who drink wine.
Today, organic food is a selling point. Consumers are now willing to spend a little more money to buy organic wines. And organic grape cultivation means more manual work in vineyards. This means that the manor sometimes has to hire more people. If the winery wants to survive, the price of organic wine will inevitably rise.
Few wine producers take market demand or higher prices as the main or secondary reasons for turning to organic products. Health and environmental are the most important reasons.
This article only shares the characteristics of organic wine on planting, and it also has its significant characteristics in winemaking and maturity. We will introduce in the future article.
Source: network (invading deletion)
Picture source: network (invading deletion)